Valve sourcing goes world

Across many kinds of merchandise in quite a lot of industries, the practice of mixing assorted components from varied assets around the world is the rule, not the exception. Should this be a concern for a management valve user? For example, when an end consumer discovers that several elements are being made in China (Figure 1), should the consumer worry concerning the quality?
When dealing with a serious valve vendor, the reply is “no.” There shouldn’t be any room for doubt when the vendor has a number of checks and balances in place specializing in product high quality to ensure control valves function as designed, want minimal upkeep, carry out safely and operate within environmental laws.
Yet, regardless of such efforts by the vendor, a control valve consumer might have questions about world sourcing and the country of origin. This article discusses how one major control valve vendor ensures product quality. Many different control valve vendors follow the same or related procedures.
Quality specification brings international assurance
Emerson enforces a comprehensive high quality specification for its Fisher control valves that have to be met by suppliers of pressure-containing and structural metal castings. The quality specification includes more than a dozen requirements that apply to the following areas:
Supplier qualification
Welding procedures
Marking inspection and testing
Tryout and pattern castings
Production castings
Certification of compliance
Supplier qualification — Suppliers undergo a rigorous qualification course of. The process thoroughly investigates a potential supplier’s ability to meet materials specs and relevant international codes and standards — as well as particular necessities related to part manufacture. In the case of castings, a foundry is considered “qualified” when it passes a crucial evaluation by Fisher’s engineers.
The foundry must show a record of qualification by a third-party inspection agency and conform to numerous requirements, such as ISO 9001:2000, ASME, A2LA, PED and others. It should pass a evaluation of its quality program in addition to on-site audits of the foundry’s processes and procedures similar to welding, warmth treatment and non-destructive examination. Additional proof of performance is set by evaluation of tryout castings to verify specifications are met.
Welding procedures — Welding is used during the manufacturing and upgrading of castings, corresponding to when radiographic examination is required. Welding requirements state that procedures and welder qualifications must meet ASME Section IX (or EN ISO 15614-1 and ISO 9606-1) qualification standards. Similarly, every lot of weld filler must adjust to ASME/AWS chemical analysis specs. In Europe, compliance should be to EN499. Weld filler should have precise chemistry.
Marking inspection and testing — Valve body castings have markings (Figure 2) that establish the foundry that poured the casting and that indicate the heat code. Material identification can be sometimes proven on the physique casting, such as CC, CF8M, CN7M and others.
Casting checks — Emerson technicians conduct both visible inspections and mechanical tests on pressure-retaining castings.
As-cast external and inner surfaces are inspected visually for unacceptable irregularities, together with sizzling tears and cracks, shrink, sand inclusions, veining and rat tails. Mechanical testing includes a hydrostatic pressure check to substantiate the leak tightness of a management valve’s pressure-retaining parts, together with the body and bonnet castings. The take a look at procedure includes a fixture that closes off cavities that might be pressurized in service after which subjects the component to the hydrostatic shell check stress applicable for the valve body materials and sophistication.
ASME B16.34 units out the hydrostatic check strain to make use of for metal and alloy valves. It’s calculated by multiplying the working pressure by 1.5 and rounding to the following larger 25 psig increment. Any visually detectable weeping or leaking by way of the pressure boundary partitions which may be part of the valve assembly is a mandatory cause for rejection (Figure 3).
Compliance with these specifications should be ensured, as properly as with different necessities regarding materials.
Figure 2. Markings identify the foundry and supplies of the valve physique. These control valve our bodies have been forged at an Emerson-approved foundry in China.
Meeting material necessities
Valve casting integrity and high quality begins with specs that decision not only for premium materials, but also for the materials that work greatest within the meant functions. These utility necessities embrace strength and ductility as properly as resistance to certain factors, together with the make-up of the managed fluid, working temperature and flow velocity.
For instance, chemical composition should be managed precisely to attain an alloy’s intended performance degree. เกจวัดความดันน้ำ for valves meant for use in oil and gasoline applications must meet NACE SP0472 recommendations that chemical composition be controlled to lower than 0.43% carbon equivalency. The decrease carbon content improves weldability and reduces the potential for stress cracking by hydrogen sulfide sometimes present in oil and gasoline manufacturing and processing purposes.
Another instance of supplies tied to a selected software embody these for upstream oil and gasoline manufacturing. Many of those functions happen in the arctic regions of Russia and Canada. For this service, castings are ASME SA 352 Grade LCC, while forgings must meet ASME SA 350 Grade LF2.
Many merchandise with global use now comply with twin material specs to fulfill ASME and European standards. For example, metal castings are specified and certified to both ASME SA216 Grade WCC and EN 10213 Grade 1.0619. Emerson usually adds its own stringent necessities similar to the warmth treating of high nickel alloys, extra demanding chemical composition or particular welding procedures.
In the past, Emerson has supplemented conventional ASTM and ASME specs to realize the enhanced corrosion-resistance levels and high temperature capabilities supplied by high-nickel alloys. This is now completed by the brand new ASTM specification A990, which addresses each materials composition and high quality.
Figure 3. Pressure-retaining elements of a valve are subjected to hydrostatic testing to evaluate the parts’ integrity. Visible leakage or seepage by way of a casting means automated rejection.
Qualifying a foundry
As a part of a prospective foundry’s qualification, Emerson inspects and exams Fisher valve castings. Non-destructive testing radiography is used as a monitoring software. ASTM A990 Class C requires radiography of the first casting of every sample. The acceptance criterion is Level three for classes A, B and C. For categories D through G, no cracking, hot tears or inserts are allowed as laid out in ASTM A990.
High-nickel alloy castings provide improved performance in corrosive services and elevated temperatures. However, if high-nickel castings are improperly prepared, they’ll pose main problems, including poor integrity, poor weldability and lower-than-expected corrosion resistance. A systematic foundry qualification course of may be adopted to avoid these casting difficulties.
The foundry should forged a 1-inch thick high-nickel take a look at plate (Figure 4) that meets ASTM Material Specification A990. It’s difficult to forged because of the distinction in cross-section between the base of the weld cavity (in the center) and the general 1-inch thickness of the plate. The cavity of the poured plate is then filled with a matching composition weld material. The welder and procedure for this step should meet the standards outlined in Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Test bars (3/8-inch thick) are reduce from the plate and bent over a 1½-inch mandrel per ASTM A990 right into a U-shape.
The bars are examined intently for cracking along the weld heat-affected zone, casting grain boundaries or dendrite boundaries. Failure to meet quality standards will result within the disqualification of the foundry from additional consideration. Casting patterns must be dedicated solely to high-nickel alloy service. Use of carbon metal or a stainless-steel sample is unacceptable as a outcome of differences in solidification properties.
Shrinkage rates for gates, risers and different equipment can differ considerably. Once the devoted pattern gear for every of those elements has been secured, try-out castings are poured for each pattern-alloy combination. The castings are then radiographed.
The intent is to disclose any inherent casting defects — corresponding to shrinkage — that have to be eliminated by modifying the sample rigging.
Figure four. In a foundry evaluation, a casting is crammed with weld filler, then sliced to yield a bar for bend testing.
A qualified foundry
Emerson has used a Chinese foundry (Figure 5) to solid Fisher valve bodies for more than a decade. After an exploratory go to by procurement and manufacturing specialists, adopted by an in depth qualification process, the foundry was permitted and has been delivering high-quality valve body and bonnet castings to Fisher valve manufacturing websites.
To help guarantee the quality of the castings it produces, the Chinese foundry has carried out worldwide standards and has obtained certifications for German TUV and CE, Norway DNV, German Lloyd’s and American ABS, and has handed worldwide quality system certifications of ISO 9001 and QS -9000.
The foundry has been awarded Gold Medals three times consecutively within the Beijing International Casting, Forging and Industrial Boiler Expo. It has twice obtained an Excellent Supplier award from Emerson.
Figure 5. This Chinese foundry meets all specifications for casting valve bodies.
Summary
Control valve users could be involved when they be taught certain valve elements are not made in the us or Europe, however elsewhere. Perhaps their concern stems from experience with other inferior merchandise, corresponding to home equipment, clothes or electronics made in those countries and sold on-line. But if the valve elements are being equipped to a significant control valve vendor that has gone to nice lengths to qualify the foundry or provider, then users can be assured the valves meet all specifications.
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